New technologies, the future of industrialisation
Do new technologies bring about industrialisation in Europe? First of all, this assumes that they are integrated into industrial production processes and do not only impact services or our lifestyles. Moreover, these innovations must be a source of sustainable Schumpeterian relocation. Indeed, they may be limited to cost reductions (robotisation) and lead to Ricardian relocations, due to comparative advantages in terms of relative production costs. Conversely, they may be anchored in the industrial fabric and bring about positive dynamic externalities and thus cause Schumpeterian relocations linked to more structural comparative advantages. Finally, we can more broadly ask what constraints or conditions of sustainability are imposed on this future industrialisation. The constraints may be geopolitical (industrial sovereignty) or social and climatic.